The continents are large portions of land immersed
limited by seas and oceans. The configuration of the
continents is the result of the movement of the tectonic
plates, which is related to the geological history of the
The American continent is a portion of land bathed by the
Atlantic Ocean to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the
west. These are two continental blocks to the north and
south joined by an isthmus (small strip of land located
between two seas). With a population of almost one billion
inhabitants and a territorial area of 42,549.00 kmē,
America is the second largest continent (behind Asia only)
and has 14.2% of the world population. In all, there are 35
independent countries and 16 colonies.
The African continent is the third largest in the world
and the second with the most inhabitants. It is basically an
agrarian continent, as around 63% of the population live in
rural areas, while only 37% live in cities.
Europe is a continent bordering Asia in the east; it is
bathed by the Arctic Glacial Ocean, to the north; across the
Atlantic to the east; and across the Mediterranean and Black
Seas to the south, bordering the Middle East across the
Bosphorus Strait (see map). It is located entirely in the
northern hemisphere of the planet and, at the same time, in
the western and eastern hemispheres. Because it is
geographically "glued" to Asia, many refer to this
continental bloc as Eurasia. See more on Countryaah.
Oceania is a continent located in Southeast Asia, bathed
by the Indian and Pacific oceans. It is the smallest among
the continents, the most isolated and, therefore, the last
to be discovered and conquered by the Europeans, being
therefore called "brand new world".
The Asian continent is the largest and most populous
continent in the world. There are 4.3 billion inhabitants
spread over 44.479.000 kmē and 50 countries, also presenting
the highest demographic densities (number of inhabitants per
kmē) on the planet. It is bathed by three oceans: on the
east by the Pacific, on the north by the Arctic Glacier and
on the south by the Indian Ocean. In its western portion, in
addition to bordering Europe, it is also bordered by the
Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea.
This 14 million km2 continent surrounds the South Pole
and is surrounded by the Southern Ocean, which lies between
the Pacific Ocean and the Atlantic. Due to the intense cold
with violent winds, this region, permanently covered by ice,
has unfavorable conditions for almost every way of life,
however, penguins live there, looking for their food in the
sea, seals and also a large number of whales.
The oceans are large stretches of salt water that cover
70.8% of the Earth's surface, surrounding and separating the
continents. There are four oceans: the Pacific Ocean, the
Atlantic Ocean, the Arctic Indian and Glacial Ocean and the
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and oldest maritime mass
on the planet. Covering 180 million kmē, the Pacific covers
almost a third of the globe's surface and corresponds to
almost half of the surface and volume of the oceans. The
Pacific Ocean is the ocean with the highest average depth
(4,280 m) and where the largest submarine pits are located (Fossa
das Marianas, with approximately 11,500 meters).
The Indian Ocean is the third largest ocean in the world.
It covers an area of 73,440,000 kmē covering all coastal
countries in eastern and northeastern Africa, the southern
coastal nations of Asia from the Arabian Peninsula to
western Southeast Asia, Indonesia, plus the northwest, west
and south of Australia. Its average depth is 3,890 meters
and the deepest point is the Java Trench, 7,725 meters below
sea level, located in the south of Indonesia. The Indian
Ocean is believed to have arisen in the Mesozoic Era, as a
result of the division of the super continent Gondwana,
having been the last ocean to form.
The Atlantic Ocean is located between America (west) and
Africa and Europe (east). It is the second largest ocean in
the world by extension, covering 80 million square
kilometers. The name Atlantic comes from the name Atlas
(Titan of Greek mythology). Its waters cover approximately
20% of the Earth's surface.
The Seas, in general, are parts or extensions of the
Oceans and are close to the Continents. Located off the
coast, these seas communicate directly with the ocean. Open
sea is a type of sea that has a direct connection with the
ocean. We can cite as an example the North Sea in Europe,
the China Sea and the Antilles Sea in Central America.
A Closed Sea occurs when there is a sea within a
continental portion and has no connection to an ocean. The
closed seas, in most cases are explained by past geological
phenomena, and are fed by rivers that have their mouth in
the closed sea.