San Marino is a small landlocked country located in the Apennine Mountains of Central Italy. It has a population of 33,000 people as of 2018. San Marino is an independent state and part of the United Nations. The country does not have its own military or defense forces, instead relying on regional organizations such as the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) for defense. The OSCE is a joint effort between 57 European nations to provide security for its member states. It includes naval patrols in territorial waters, air surveillance, and various other security measures. In addition to this regional defense system, San Marino also relies on its police force to maintain law and order within its borders. The San Marino Police Force is responsible for upholding laws within the country’s jurisdiction while also providing assistance to other members of OSCE when needed. See naturegnosis to learn more about the country of San Marino.
San Marino is traditionally neutral. For representative purposes and internal security (2009) there is a semi-military gendarmerie. To see related acronyms about this country, please check ABBREVIATIONFINDER where you can see that SMR stands for San Marino.
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San Marino Geopolitics
San Marino is a small republic located in the heart of central Italy, on the border between Emilia Romagna and Marche. It is the fifth smallest state in the world after the Principality of Monaco, the Vatican, Nauru and Tuvalu and among the oldest republics: tradition traces its foundation back to around the year 301.
Relations with Italy, the main commercial and financial partner, are fundamental. Already in 1862 the two countries concluded an agreement of friendship and cooperation and relations are still friendly, even if tensions have recently been created due to the Italian requests and measures aimed at combating tax evasion and money laundering. In this regard, San Marino has adopted a new policy to ensure greater transparency: it canceled banking secrecy and concluded agreements for the exchange of information on tax matters. In 2009, the OECD had placed the country on the ‘white list’ (states or territories that have followed international rules, stipulating at least 12 agreements that comply with these rules) of tax havens. In 2014,
Regarding relations with the European Union (Eu), in 1991 San Marino concluded an agreement with the European Economic Community to establish a customs union and promote cooperation. In July 2010 a referendum on the application for EU membership was proposed, but the San Marino government decided to block it and propose it again three years later. Called for October 20, 2013, it has not reached the quorum necessary by 32%, despite having seen the marginal victory of the votes in favor of joining the EU. San Marino is active in the main multilateral organizations and is a member of the United Nations, the IMF and the Council of Europe. From an institutional point of view, it is a parliamentary republic with ancient institutions, which date back to the 11th century. The parliament, known as the Great and General Council, is single-chamber and made up of 60 members, elected by direct universal suffrage every five years. The Council appoints every six months the two regent captains who make up the regency, the collegiate body that constitutes the apical entity of the system and performs the functions of head of state. The executive power is held by the State Congress, composed of a maximum number of ten secretaries and expression of the council majority.
The judicial power, both ordinary and administrative, is entrusted to non-San Marino magistrates designated by the Great and General Council. The only exception is made for ‘conciliatory’ judges, who may be citizens of the republic. Despite being a neutral state, San Marino has military corps: there is no compulsory military service, but all citizens aged 18 to 60 can be enlisted in case of need.
The country is going through a serious economic crisis that began in 2009 and mainly due to the fall in Italian demand and the ‘money laundering scandal’ that involved the largest national bank (the Savings Bank of the Republic of San Marino), again in 2009. From these difficulties the San Marino system still struggles to recover. Tourism and the banking sector are the main sectors of the economy. The credit sector as a whole – banks and insurance companies – represents an important share of the national GDP, around 15% of the total. The proceeds from the issue of stamps and coins are also significant.