Hungary has been a member of NATO since 1999. To see related acronyms about this country, please check ABBREVIATIONFINDER where you can see that HUN stands for Hungary. The defense, which is based on general military duty with an initial service of 6 months, comprises (2008) 32,000 men. It is organized in an army of 23,000 men with 2 brigades and an air force of 7,500 men with 28 fighter aircraft, including 14 JAS 39 C/D Gripen and 12 attack helicopters. The reserves include 44,000 men’s army and 8,000 men’s air force. The border protection troops comprise 12,000 men and will be reduced. The material is semi-modern and of Soviet origin with an increased element of Western material.
Defense costs fell from 7.2% to 1.2% of GDP in 1985-2006. A contractual Russian debt was reduced in 1995. through the delivery of 28 modern fighter aircraft, MiG 29, which has been reduced to 12. Hungary participates in a number of UN peacekeeping efforts. Afghanistan (NATO-ISAF), Bosnia and Herzegovina (EUFOR) and Serbia (KFOR) and with observers/ military police in five countries.
Hungary has been a member of NATO since 1999. The country has no military service. The total force figures for Hungary’s armed forces are 27,800 active personnel, with a reserve of 20,000, and a semi-military border guard with a force of 12,000 personnel (2018, IISS).
The Army and the Air Force are not branches of their own, but components of a common force. Hungary has no navy.
The land component has a strength of 10 450 active personnel. Heavier material includes 44 tanks of a T-72, 120 armored vehicles and 272 armored personnel carriers, as well as two river patrol boats and four river air my warship.
The air component has a strength of 5750 active personnel. Material comprising 14 fighter central Saab, six transport aircraft, four trainers, and 21 helicopters, 11 combat helicopters of the type Mi-24.
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In 2018, Hungary participated in the NATO operations in Afghanistan (Operation Resolute Support) with 111 personnel, and in Serbia (KFOR) with 388 personnel.
Hungary participated in UN operations in the Central African Republic (MINUSCA) with two observers, in Cyprus (UNFICYP) with 11 personnel, in Lebanon (UNIFIL) with 10 personnel, and in Western Sahara (MINURSO) with two observers.
In addition, Hungary participated in the EU-led operation in Bosnia-Herzegovina (Operation Althea) with 164 personnel. In January 2012, the EU declared to the Commission that it would appeal to Hungary before the European Court of Justice. In November, the court issued a ruling saying that Hungary was in violation of EU rules as it had lowered the retirement age for judges and prosecutors. The government would use the amendment to remove 300 “troublesome” judges.
Also in January, the government raised the VAT rate from 25 to 27%, as part of a series of crisis measures aimed at reducing the state budget deficit. Still, the rating agency Fitch downgrades the nation’s government bonds to junk status. Tens of thousands are demonstrating in the streets of Budapest against the new constitution, which comes into force in January. In February, the country’s state-owned carrier Malev goes bankrupt. In March, the EU will suspend aid to Hungary due to its deficit in the state budget. In September, Prime Minister Orban rejected the conditions attached to a $ 15 billion € IMF loan.
The persecution of Roma continued in 2012. On August 5, fascist Jobbik conducted a march in the Roma village of Devecser. The fascists threw stones and concrete pieces against the houses in the village. Police failed to intervene. On August 18, militant black shirts conducted a march in Roma parts of the village of Cegléd. They patrol in smaller groups, shouting passwords against the Roma and threats to life. Police advised the Roma to stay in their houses and not go out for the 2 days the fascist thugs housed in the village. On October 17, several thousands of Jobbik supporters conducted a march in Roma parts of the village of Miskolc, shouting slogans against the Roma. Several hundred Roma conducted a peaceful counter-demonstration.
Marton Gyongyosi, who is a parliamentarian for Jobbik, is causing scandal as he calls for the compilation of a list of all Jewish officials, as they “pose a national security risk”.
In January 2013, the Constitutional Court overturned an addition to the Electoral Law Parliament had passed in November, which further altered the electoral system to Fidesz’s favor. Two months later, Parliament adopts an addition to the Constitution that restricts the powers of the Constitutional Court. Critics say the government is continuing its project of undermining democracy.
President Áder officially apologized to the Serbian Parliament in June 2013 for the crimes committed by Hungarian Nazis against Serbian civilians in Vojvodina in 1944-45. Serbian parliamentarians had a few days before passed a resolution condemning the massacre in Vojvodina.
Also in June, the government presented its 5th addition to the Constitution. The addition banned “political advertising in independent media” and restricted the recognition of religious groups. In the same month, the European Parliament set up a commission to examine the Hungarian constitutional amendments. The Commission issued a report the month after which it was recommended to bring the Constitution into line with the European Constitution, the rulings of the Hungarian Constitutional Court, the recommendations of the Venice Commission and the Council of Europe. Parliament agreed to support the report at the same time, but the report was ignored by the Hungarian government and the European Parliament did not proceed.
A Budapest court in August found 4 members of Jobbik guilty of Roma murder in 2008-09. Three of those convicted were given life sentences in what was Hungary’s first racially oriented serial murder case.
Viktor Orban’s right-wing Fidesz party fell 8.2% to 44.5% in the April 2014 parliamentary elections. The first election after the constitutional amendments. Due. However, the electoral system could sit at 133 out of Parliament’s 199 seats and thus a solid majority. The center-right election alliance Unit (Összefogás) went up 6.3% to 26%, but had to settle for 38 seats. The neo-Nazi Jobbik party rose 3.9% to 20.5% and gained 23 seats. Hungary thus retained its status as Europe’s supremely right-wing state, and Orbán could continue in the post of Prime Minister.
In July, at a speech in the Romanian city of Băile Tușnad, Orbán outlined his vision for the fascist ideal state, which according to. him followed the liberal state. As his ideals for this state, he peculiarly mentioned Russia, China, India and Turkey. Within a few days, international media, academics and foreign policy experts criticized Orbán for his statements and urged the EU and NATO to take action. But nothing happened.
Freedom of expression came under further pressure during 2014. In May, the Constitutional Court issued an order in which Internet Service Providers (ISP) is responsible for any blogs or news commentary that may violate the country’s media law. The ISPs must therefore exercise censorship and may otherwise be closed. In June, the Supreme Court issued a ruling saying that the government-critical TV station ATV had the media law restrictions on comment by beginning Jobbik as “right-wing” in a news broadcast. That same month, the editor-in-chief of the WEB news site Origo was fired after publishing a history of misuse of public funds committed by the prime minister’s cabinet chief. In the same month, the government passed an advertising tax that particularly affected RTL Club – one of the few remaining independent TV channels in the country.
In June, the National Audit Office conducted unannounced visits to 3 NGOs that administered funds from foreign donors. At the same time, the government published a list of a further 13 NGOs, including human rights organizations that were characterized as “leftist” and “problematic”. In September, police conducted a search of two NGOs that distributed grants and other funds. They got confiscated computers, documents and servers. The month after, the state audit released a report of the review of the accounts of 4 NGOs distributing funds and 55 others receiving them, accusing the NGOs of fraud, fund fraud and other irregularities. In February 2015, Amnesty International published a report on the witch-hunting by the Hungarian authorities against NGOs.
In September, the European Court of Human Rights upheld its order in April when it recognized Hungary for violating freedom of religion and assembly when in 2010 it deprived a number of religious groups of their status as churches.
The country’s Roma continued to face discrimination and violent attacks. In May 2015, a Roma house in northeastern Hungary was attacked with two petrol bombs. 450 Roma families were put on the streets by the authorities in the city of Miskolc in July as part of the authorities’ hunt for Roma.