The defense of Sudan, which is based on selective military duty with an initial service of 18-30 months, comprises (2006) approximately 105,000 men and is organized into eight divisions, eight stand-alone brigades, one air-landing division, 20 patrol boats, 35 older fighter aircraft and ten armed helicopters. Semi-military security forces amount to 17,500 men. The material is semi-modern and of mixed Soviet and Western origin. As a result of the civil war, defense costs rose from 3.2% of GDP in 1985 to more than 15% in 1994 to decrease until the 2005 peace agreement. They amount to 1.7% of GDP in 2006. The armed opposition SPLA was transformed into a police force following a ceasefire agreement with the government in 2002. To see related acronyms about this country, please check ABBREVIATIONFINDER where you can see that SD stands for Sudan.
The conflict in the Darfur province erupted in 2003. Since 2004, the United Nations has made extensive efforts in Sudan with observers from 74 states. In August 2007, the UN Security Council made a decision to deploy a unified UN force, a so-called hybrid force, with soldiers from the UN and the African Union. The maximum number is 19,555 military personnel and 6,432 police. This is the largest effort to date in UN history.
International pressure forced Omar Bashir to remove the ban on flights to the south. The ban had hindered the transport of food and medicine to the victims of the famine disaster in the south. It was estimated that 6 million people suffered the same risk of dying as the 60,000 who died of starvation in February 1993 in Parayang, 800 km southeast of Khartoum.
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In February 1993, the government and FB resumed negotiations in Entebbe, Uganda. However, the talks were boycotted by the dissident Mashar. He preferred instead to accelerate the merger process in Nairobi with another FB outbreak group led by William Nyuon. The alliance was concluded in April and enabled the signing of a ceasefire agreement with the government as well as a promise to continue the negotiations that had been conducted in May 1992 in Kenya. Negotiations in Abuja broke down in June 1993 due to disagreement over the return of power to the provinces and the collapse lasted the year.
In May 1994, the government signed an agreement with the rebel groups to support the population groups that had been isolated by the conflict. Nevertheless, the situation became increasingly serious and the humanitarian organizations reiterated their condemnation of the situation. In July 1995, African Rights accused Khartoum of being responsible for “genocide” on the Nubians.
In the March 1996 elections, Bashir was re-elected with 76% of the vote. After 12 years of war, a million dead, and 3 million on the run, the opportunities for peaceful coexistence between the “theocrats” in the north and the rebels in the south seemed to be dwindling.
In November 1997, disputes with Egypt over the administration of the Halaib triangle, which is rich in phosphate, manganese and possibly oil, led Sudan to ask the Arab League to enter the conflict. Acc. an agreement of 1899 belongs to Halaib Egypt, but a new agreement of 1905 left the area to Sudan.
In January 1998, the United States introduced an economic blockade of Sudan. As a backdrop, the superpower stated that Sudan “supports international terrorism”, trains opposition groups from neighboring countries to destabilize them and, moreover, lacks respect for human rights.
A month later, the UN called on the international community to provide Sudan $ 100 million in aid to rescue the 4 million victims of war and drought.
The Sudanese guerrilla blamed for the February attack in which Vice President Al Zubair Mohamed Saleh died when his plane crashed in the area of Nasir, 700 km from Khartoum. Acc. observers receive Christian rebels in the People’s Liberation Army from the United States through Uganda, Ethiopia and Eritrea. The Catholic Church in Sudan decided for the first time to participate in the peace talks between the Sudanese government and the SPLA, which agreed to negotiate.
A meningitis epidemic hit the country in March 1999. In Khartoum alone, 30 people per day died. It was the worst suburbs of the capital.