After the demobilization in 1989–91, the defense has been cut down considerably and reorganized. It is based on selective military duty with a first voluntary service of 18–36 months and (2008) includes 14,000 men organized in an independent brigade, six territorial defense areas, 21 patrol boats and 15 armed helicopters. The material is older and of Soviet origin.
Defense of Nicaragua costs decreased in 1985-2006 from 17.4% to 0.7% of GDP. To see related acronyms about this country, please check ABBREVIATIONFINDER where you can see that NIC stands for Nicaragua.
The area that is today Nicaragua was originally influenced by the south from the chibcha people (see Colombia) and from the north by the maya people. The Atlantic coast was populated by the Miskito people. Cristóbal Colón (Columbus) first visited the region in 1502. After converting Nicoya and Nicarao native leaders to Christianity and defeating Diriang’s rebel army, Spanish conquistadors Gil Gonzales Dávila and Andrés Niño Spain’s dominance over the territory. In 1544 it was incorporated into Guatemalan General Capatinate.
In 1821, the region became independent and joined the rest of Central America in the Mexican Empire. Already in 1824, however, they again broke loose to form the Federation of the United Provinces of Central America. Nicaragua withdrew from the federation in 1839 and became an independent state from then on. The country was politically divided into two sharply separated groups: the conservative coffee and sugar oligarchy, the liberal petty traders and users who were friendly to free trade.
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Invasion of the United States
The country’s geopolitical location made it a strategic piece for the US expansion to the west. Thus, in 1856, 120 North Americans went ashore under the guidance of adventurer William Walker, who, with the support of Washington, proclaimed Nicaragua president. The purpose of the North American invasion was to expand the area of slave plantations, which was itself put under increasing pressure. Walker was defeated by a joint Central American army in 1857, and executed in 1860 when he made another invasion attempt at Trujillo in Honduras. In 1875 and 1895, the country’s ports were occupied militarily by Germany and Great Britain, respectively, who administered the customs duties to collect their debts.
After three decades of conservative rule, the Liberal Party won in 1893 and José Santos Zelaya took over the presidential post. However, the Liberals refused to meet a number of demands from the United States that, under President William M. Taft, had initiated his “dollar diplomacy”. Therefore, in 1912, Taft ordered the land invaded, and after the Liberal leader Benjamín Zeledón was executed, the invasion force remained in the country until 1925. The following year they returned to rescue President Adolfo Díaz, who was close to being overthrown.