The defense, which is based on selective military duty with an initial service of 12 months, comprises (2008) 57,000 men and is organized into 4 divisions and 20 independent battalions. It has 2 submarines, 8 frigates/ corvettes, 13 patrol boats, 1 amphibious ship and 57 fighter aircraft. The reserves amount to 112,000 men and semi-military coastguard forces to 400 men. The material is semi-modern and of Western origin.
Defense costs, which increased from 1.8% to 3.4% of GDP in 1985-96, had fallen to 1.9% of GDP in 2006. To see related acronyms about this country, please check ABBREVIATIONFINDER where you can see that ECU stands for Ecuador.
1988 New reform period
The 1988 election was won by Social Democrat Rodrigo Borja, who took over the presidential post in August with support from a coalition of Izquierda Democrática (Democratic Left), the Christian Democrats led by Osvaldo Hurtado, and a dozen small parties from the left. The Borja government was plagued by serious economic problems from the outset: inflation was three-digit, foreign debt exceeded $ 11 billion, the state’s budget deficit was 17% of gross domestic product (GDP), foreign exchange reserves were negative by $ 330 million, and unemployment was 15%.
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In 1990, oil revenues accounted for 54% of the country’s export revenues, and rising oil prices and the government’s reduction in public spending contributed to a slight improvement in the economic situation. GDP rose 1.5%, inflation fell and so did the current account deficit, but so did real wages. The huge external debt had a strong negative impact on the country’s economic recovery.
In domestic politics, Borja succeeded in bringing an end to the Taura command (“Comandos de Taura”). It had abducted Febres Cordero in 1987. At the same time, he managed to make a peace deal with the guerrilla organization “Alfaro Vive”, which a year later handed its weapons to the Catholic Church.
At international level, Ecuador actively participated in the regional cooperation processes. The country supported the 8-member group (Grupo de los Ocho), which mediated in the conflicts in Central America, supported the Rio group and was again included in the Alliance Free Countries movement. Quito hosted frequent regional conferences and summits.
In May 1990, the Presidents of Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela agreed to initiate the abolition of customs barriers between January 1, 1992 with the aim of creating a 1995 Andean Common Market.
1990 The indigenous people revolt
On May 28, 1990, Native Americans from the coastal region of Santo Domingo occupied the church in Quito, thus initiating a national uprising whose strength surprised the entire country. They demanded access to land and respect for human rights. The rebellion was supported by the indigenous population of the country’s central region and the Amazon region, which blocked the country’s roads. Many medium-sized cities in the Andean region were symbolically occupied by tens of thousands of Indians from the surrounding municipalities. Subsequently, the Indigenous people of the Amazon region conducted a march to the capital Quito. Along the way, 1 were killed and several wounded, but without the repression to the same extent as in earlier times.
A short time later, a dialogue began with the government, with the Catholic Church and representatives of various human rights organizations as mediators. On May 28, 1991, over 1,000 Indians peacefully occupied Parliament’s meeting room and demanded amnesty for the 1,000 Indians who had been jailed for participating in the uprising 1 year earlier.