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India

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1915 Gandhi returns to India

Mohandas K. Gandhi was a lawyer, educated in England and with a thorough knowledge of the colonial methods used by the empire in South Africa. When he returned to India in 1915, he immediately understood the necessity of overcoming close Anglo-Indian cooperation. Gandhi sought to involve the Muslims in the struggle for self-government, worked for the reintroduction of the traditional Hindu education system and paid special attention to the popular mobilization. His association with the National Congress especially strengthened this movement's most radical wing, where the young man, Jawaharlal Nehru, was also active. This was especially true after the 1919 massacre at Amritsar, when a demonstration was drowned in bullets by the British army. English sources killed 380 and wounded 1,200. To see related acronyms about this country, please check ABBREVIATIONFINDER where you can see that IND stands for India.

At the initiative of Gandhi and in response to the massacre, the National Congress in 1920 launched a campaign that revealed the strength of the civil opposition. The movement had an authentic national character in distribution and depth. The campaign included a boycott of the colony institutions - a boycott of elections, administrative bodies and the English-based education system. It was based on a principle of non-violence, boycott of English goods and passive acceptance of possible punitive measures. In recognition of his leadership, Gandhi was exalted to Mahatma - the Great Spirit.

Military of IndiaIn 1930-34, a new campaign was carried out which, as a parole, had total independence and the fight against the state monopoly on salt. The campaign demonstrated Mahatma's ability to combine a comprehensive political project with concrete demands - affecting all the poor - in such a way that they understood and supported them. The women participated massively for the first time in the demonstrations. The prisons were flooded with prisoners who did not object, and the authorities did not know their living advice. Gandhi came to stand in a natural negotiating position over the British, and after World War II, they had no other way but to quickly allow India to gain independence.

1947 Independence.. and sharing

With the British retreat in 1947, the subcontinent was divided into two states. On the one hand, India itself and on the other Pakistan, formed to concentrate the Muslim population in one country into two regions: West and East Pakistan. India consisted of a myriad of ethnic, linguistic and cultural groups. Yet, in the anti-colonial struggle, they were able to develop a sense of national unity that the English were unable to strangle.

After independence, Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, together with Sukarno, Nasser and Tito, devised the concept of political alliance freedom for the countries fighting for their independence and supremacy. At the same time, he developed a development policy based on the notion that industrialization would create prosperity. In a few decades, India made great technological advances that enabled it to put satellites into orbit and in 1974 to test an atomic bomb. It thus became the first nuclear power among the alliance-free countries. One can greatly discuss the appropriateness of such projects in a country that has not yet been able to solve the fundamental problems of the birth of its population.

Nehru died in 1966 and after a brief interlude in which Lal Bahadur Shastri was prime minister, Nehru's daughter, Indira Gandhi, was appointed to follow in his father's footsteps as the country's leader. After three years as prime minister and power struggle between her and another Congress party leader, Morarji Desai, she became the undisputed leader of the Congress Party in 1969. She herself presented herself as her father's successor, as a socialist and leftist politician.

 

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