Mexico History – The 1910 Revolution and Subsequent Governments

The 1910 Revolution

On the eve of one of many re-elections of Porfirio Díaz, Francisco Madero, a young man educated in the United States and in Paris, published a pamphlet “The Presidential Succession”, which greatly influenced political opinion. Groups hostile to the Porfiriato presented him as their candidate in April 1910. He was introduced while Díaz was re-elected. Madero escaped from jail and continued to conspire from Texas, brandishing the slogan “Effective suffrage, no reelection” that had been Porfirio Díaz’s before he came to power. At first, only a few friends and peasants followed him, and the guerrillas Pancho Villa (whose real name was Doroteo Arango) with his men. In November he proclaimed the Plan of San Luis, insisting on the need for an effective vote and speaking of agrarian reform for the first time. He was well received in the north of the country and on December 1, his appointment as provisional president was confirmed in Coahuila.

The 25 of maypole of 1911 Diaz and Madero in Ciudad Juarez signed a pact under which Porfirio Diaz resigned to the power and leaving for exile. Immediately afterwards, Madero triumphantly entered the capital, being elected president on October 17. However, the situation was difficult. The conditions of the pact of the City of Juárez oblige him to respect in his positions the legislators and magistrates who were almost all addicted to Díaz. In 1911 an uprising began in Chihuahua: it was led by a nephew of the former dictator, Félix Díaz.

According to, the revolutionary outbreak could be repressed, but its leader flees, organizing a military coup that took place on February 19, 1913. General Victoriano Huerta, sent to suppress the rebellion, came to terms with the rebels in exchange for an appointment to occupy the provisional government. This agreement was called the Citadel Pact. On the 21st of the same month, Madero and his vice president José María Pino Suárez were arrested and murdered when they were being taken to the penitentiary. Then Huerta came to power and harshly persecuted the Liberals. Meanwhile, the governor of Coahuila Venustiano Carranza, assumed the defense of the constitution fighting against Victoriano Huerta whom he managed to defeat after a year of civil war. At the same time, the audacious guerrillas Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata were fighting in the north and south, respectively. General Álvaro Obregón, who had been in Madero’s service, then joined Carranza, who appointed him general and head of the northwestern armies, replacing Villa, who had broken with him on the grounds that he was departing from the revolutionary line. He defeated Villa and Zapata in several matches. In the Querétaro convention, where the Mexican Constitution (1917) was ratified, he managed to incorporate article 27 on agrarian reform and the reduction of the assets of the clergy. May 1, 1917 Carranza was elected president, but internal wars hampered his efforts to channel the revolution. As the end of his term approached, Alvaro Obregón aspired to the presidency. Adolfo de la Huerta rebelled in Sonora and Carranza had to leave the capital, heading for Veracruz; Carranza was defeated in Aljibes, Puebla, and as he marched north, he was assassinated in Tlaxcalaltongo.

In 1919, Emiliano Zapata was assassinated, and a few years later, in 1923, Pancho Villa was assassinated. After Adolfo de la Huerta’s short provisional term, General Obregón was elevated to the presidency. During his government, the Secretary of Education entrusted José Vasconcelos, supporting him in his educational forms and approving the creation of hundreds of rural schools, during his presidency the Bucareli treaties were signed, which improved relations between Mexico and the United States. 1924.

Subsequent Governments

After several rulers occupied the presidential chair, Lazaro Cardenas, president for the first six – year period (1934 – 1940), banished Calles and gave great impetus to education and Agrarian Reform. He is also remembered for the oil expropriation, which occurred on March 18, 1938, and the nationalization of the railways. His successor, Manuel Ávila Camacho, stopped the agrarian distribution, reconciled with the nascent industrial bourgeoisie and faced the start of the Second World War.

During the following years of the PRI government, Mexico experienced a time of economic development (the Mexican Miracle), but it was also a time of protests and requests for freedom and civil rights. In 1968, it was the scene of the massacre of the Tlatelolco protesters. On the other hand, starting in the mid-eighties, a neo-liberal opening and privatization took place and a Free Trade Agreement was signed with the United States and Canada.

Accusations of electoral fraud, assassinations of politicians have marked the electoral processes. The 1 of January of 1994, took up arms the EZLN in postegados fight for the rights of indigenous peoples, and against neoliberal policies and social exclusion will. In 2000, Mexico experienced for the first time, after 71 years, the political alternation in the presidency of the Republic when an alliance of the National Action Party and the Green Ecologist of Mexico defeated the PRI in the presidential elections with Vicente Fox as the presidential candidate.

During 2006, Mexico experienced a process of crisis due to social polarization due to the presidential elections of that year. These were involved in numerous controversies and attacks between the main applicants, Andrés Manuel López Obrador, Felipe de Jesús Calderón Hinojosa and Roberto Madrazo Pintado. In these elections, Felipe de Jesús Calderón Hinojosa was proclaimed by a small margin, who has served as president of the country since December 1, 2006.

In the 2012 elections, the president of Mexico, Enrique Peña Nieto, was elected, who defeated Andrés López Obrador, in controversial elections that Obrador once again described as fraudulent and irregular [11] .

Mexico History - The 1910 Revolution and Subsequent Governments