Mexico is a developing country whose economy is based on oil, remittances from Mexican emigrants who work abroad, tourism and intense industrial, mining and agricultural activity [18] .

Mexico is the country with the most international free trade agreements signed in the world, however, the United States continues to be its main export and import market. The largest Mexican export products are oil, machinery, textiles, coffee, chemical products, etc.

The country’s economic growth has been maintained at a moderate rate in recent years, however, this has not been enough to improve competitiveness and combat the poverty of its population. The per capita income of the Mexican, according to World Bank data at the end of 2006, was $ 7,310 per year [18] . The official currency is the Mexican peso.

Primary sector

Of the primary activities, agriculture occupies a main place in the country, the extraordinary diversity of climates, areas and natural resources favor agricultural exploitation although this has been affected by the opening to North American imports that have come to damage even traditional productions like corn.

Among basic grains grown in Mexico during the early 1990s they highlighted maize, wheat and sorghum, spread throughout the Republic, with higher production in Sinaloa, Jalisco, Guanajuato and Puebla; the beans had lost ground and cultivation of rice was minimal, whereas the cotton and safflower highlighted in production, even above the soybean. Other products that stand out are coffee, potatoes, tomatoes, bananas, sugar cane, etc. [18] .

Regarding livestock production, by 1995 there were 2 million head of pigs, 1.4 million of cattle, 500,000 of goats, and 420,000 of sheep. The country produced 3,685,344 tons of meat and 1,241,987 tons of eggs. Jalisco, Guanajuato and the State of Mexico stand out.

In addition to agricultural activities, the primary sector includes those related to forestry (forestry exploitation of timber products and harvesting) and fishing.

Industrial sector

The industrial sector is the economic engine of the country, made up of extractive activities: mining and oil and gas extraction, construction, the electrical industry and transformation or manufacturing activities. Industrial activity is one of the most important in the country as it occupies the fourth national economically active population [18] .

According to, Mexican mining includes the exploitation of precious metals, industrial metals, metallic and non-metallic minerals, and metals obtained as by-products. Mining production was traditionally dedicated to silver and gold, but it has been changing, developing that of industrial metals, until the country has become an important producer of lead and zinc. Mexico is the main silver producer in the world [18] .

The oil industry includes the activities of exploration, exploitation, extraction, refining, transportation, storage and distribution and sale of oil. Petróleos Mexicanos (Pemex) is the parastatal company that performs these tasks in Mexico. The Mexican economy depends on the increasingly smaller income from oil. Mexico signed a Free Trade Agreement with the United States and Canada, which in the opinion of many analysts has made its economy more dependent and has destroyed part of its agricultural production.

Service sector

Another major contributor to the Mexican Gross Domestic Product is the service sector, within which tourism ranks first. Mexico is a country that has 26 sites declared natural or cultural heritage of humanity and has also dedicated itself to developing the specialized tourism industry, from bird watching to extreme adventure sports or culinary tours.


Tourism in Mexico is an important economic activity for the country and is one of the largest in the world, ranked eighth worldwide in terms of international tourist arrivals, with 21.4 million visitors in 2006, and is the first destination for foreign tourists within Latin America. Revenues from foreign tourists reached USD 12.17 billion in 2006, and Mexico captured 15.7% of the American tourism market segment in terms of foreign tourist arrivals, placed second on the continent, behind USA. In 2005, tourism contributed 5.7% of national income from the export of goods and services, and represented 14.2% of direct and indirect jobs in the Mexican economy.

The main tourist attractions in Mexico are the ancient ruins of Mesoamerican culture, colonial cities, and beach resorts. The temperate climate of the country, together with its historical cultural heritage; – the fusion of European culture (particularly Spanish) with Mesoamerican culture -; they also make Mexico an attractive tourist destination worldwide. The vast majority of foreign tourists visiting Mexico come from the United States and Canada. The next largest group are visitors from Europe and Asia. A small number of tourists also come from Latin American countries.

Mexico Economy