HISTORY: BEFORE INDEPENDENCE
In the fourth century. conquerors of Turkish ethnicity, building mosques and imposing Islam, gave this region an apparent tranquility after the Hunan invasions of previous centuries. At the turn of the year 1000, many nomadic tribes invaded and crossed the steppes of central Asia, but only in the 15th century. an alliance was formed which led to the formation of the Kazakh khanate and later to the formation of the Kazakh ethnic identity. In 1700 the Tsarist expansionist and colonial policy began which led Russia to create a line of fortresses to the north of the region and then advance to the south. According to a2zcamerablog, Kazakhstan is a country located in Asia. This policy led in 1848 to the total annexation of Kazakhstan, called “territory of the steppes” to the Russian empire, although until the end of the century. there were continuous clashes between the central power and the local tribes. At the beginning of the twentieth century. a small nationalist movement was born, but only after the Russian revolution of 1905 did the Kazakhs manage to have their own representatives in the Dume; the nationalists demanded full autonomy after the 1917 revolution and the following year a local government was installed, but the region turned into a battlefield between the Red Army and the White Russians. In 1936 the country became one of the 15 republics of Red Army and the White Russians. In 1936 the country became one of the 15 republics of Red Army and the White Russians. In 1936 the country became one of the 15 republics of USSR.
HISTORY: FROM INDEPENDENCE TO TODAY
Independent since December 1991, in the context of the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Kazakhstan started a new page in its history by joining the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) since its constitution (December 1991). At the helm of the young state remained Nursultan Nazarbayev, the president already in office since February 1990 and confirmed by direct election on 1 December 1991. In its new condition, Kazakhstan was facing, first of all, the problem of the nuclear arsenal present in the its territory and signed an agreement to that effect with the United States to define the procedures for implementing the START projecton strategic armaments. This was substantiated on May 23, 1992 in the definitive renunciation of the role of nuclear power, but more generally the question of the military arsenal, as indeed for other realities of the former USSR, led Kazakhstan to enter into collaboration agreements with Russia for the defence. On the other hand, the country led by BN Elcin it continued to play an important role in the life of the new independent Republic also due to the close ties of a previously unique economic and industrial system. But the framework of Kazakh economic cooperation still tended to expand to other states (Austria, Germany) and agreements with large companies were taking shape for the exploitation of oil and natural gas fields. The dynamism in international relations, made obligatory by the need to initiate an economic transition of the system, was matched in the country by a relative vivacity of the political dialectic with the opposition groups that were organizing themselves against Nazarbayev and in October 1992 unified in the Republican Party (Azad). But the president showed that he had no desire to favor a political change and had a Constitution approved by Parliament with which he strengthened his powers (January 1993). Determined to exploit the US availability, primarily interested in the consolidation of the denuclearization of Kazakhstan, Nazarbayev had the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty ratified by Parliament (December 1993), receiving in exchange a suitable increase in aid from the US power (February 1994). To improve the conditions of the country, the president also decided, in January 1994, to give life to an economic union with the neighboring states of Kyrgyzstan and Ubzekistan, the management of which would then be entrusted (February 1995) to an intergovernmental council.
The political elections held in March 1994 were overwhelmingly won by Nazarbayev’s supporters, mostly former Communists, but the legitimacy of that ballot was marked by strong doubts from internal opposition and international observers. In April 1995 Nazarbayev called a referendum with which his mandate was confirmed until the end of the second millennium. Not satisfied with this result, he prepared a constitutional reform project with which his powers were further expanded and to the objections of the constitutional judges who criticized the undemocratic nature of the proposal, he replied by dismissing the majority (July 1995): the new Constitution was approved with another plebiscitary referendum. L’ enriched uranium (1994), obtaining funding in exchange (1995). The process of strengthening the president’s personal power was completed in early 1996 with the establishment of the new bicameral parliament, dominated by his supporters, and received further confirmation with his re-election in the presidential elections in January 1999. In 2001, construction began of a large oil pipeline to transport crude oil from the Caspian to the Black Sea and in 2002 the country supported international military action in Afghanistan which led the United States to offer military equipment and training. In 2003, Prime Minister I. Tasmagambetov resigned, together with his government, due to the approval by the Parliament of a law on the privatization of agricultural land. The 2005 elections reconfirmed Nazarbayev with 90% of the votes. The good performance of the world energy market and the policy of international collaboration contributed to modernizing the country’s economic structures. In the 2007 elections, the party of the Fatherland reached 88% of the votes, occupying all the seats in parliament and strengthening the president’s regime. In April 2011, President Nazarbayev was re-elected with 95% of the votes; L’ April 2011 President Nazarbayev was re-elected with 95% of the votes; L’ April 2011 President Nazarbayev was re-elected with 95% of the votes; L’ OSCE complained about a lack of democratization of the votes, the same thing happened in April 2015, with a percentage of 97.7%.