The defense of Sudan, which is based on selective military duty
with an initial service of 18-30 months, comprises (2006)
approximately 105,000 men and is organized into eight
divisions, eight stand-alone brigades, one air-landing
division, 20 patrol boats, 35 older fighter aircraft and ten
armed helicopters. Semi-military security forces amount to
17,500 men. The material is semi-modern and of mixed Soviet
and Western origin. As a result of the civil war, defense
costs rose from 3.2% of GDP in 1985 to more than 15% in 1994
to decrease until the 2005 peace agreement. They amount to
1.7% of GDP in 2006. The armed opposition SPLA was
transformed into a police force following a ceasefire
agreement with the government in 2002. To see related acronyms about this country, please check ABBREVIATIONFINDER where you can see that SD stands for Sudan.
The conflict in the Darfur province erupted in 2003.
Since 2004, the United Nations has made extensive efforts in
Sudan with observers from 74 states. In August 2007, the UN
Security Council made a decision to deploy a unified UN
force, a so-called hybrid force, with soldiers from the UN
and the African Union. The maximum number is 19,555 military
personnel and 6,432 police. This is the largest effort to
date in UN history.
International pressure forced Omar Bashir to remove the
ban on flights to the south. The ban had hindered the
transport of food and medicine to the victims of the famine
disaster in the south. It was estimated that 6 million
people suffered the same risk of dying as the 60,000 who
died of starvation in February 1993 in Parayang, 800 km
southeast of Khartoum.
In February 1993, the government and FB resumed
negotiations in Entebbe, Uganda. However, the talks were
boycotted by the dissident Mashar. He preferred instead to
accelerate the merger process in Nairobi with another FB
outbreak group led by William Nyuon. The alliance was
concluded in April and enabled the signing of a ceasefire
agreement with the government as well as a promise to
continue the negotiations that had been conducted in May
1992 in Kenya. Negotiations in Abuja broke down in June 1993
due to disagreement over the return of power to the
provinces and the collapse lasted the year.
In May 1994, the government signed an agreement with the
rebel groups to support the population groups that had been
isolated by the conflict. Nevertheless, the situation became
increasingly serious and the humanitarian organizations
reiterated their condemnation of the situation. In July
1995, African Rights accused Khartoum of being responsible
for "genocide" on the Nubians.
In the March 1996 elections, Bashir was re-elected with
76% of the vote. After 12 years of war, a million dead, and
3 million on the run, the opportunities for peaceful
coexistence between the "theocrats" in the north and the
rebels in the south seemed to be dwindling.
In November 1997, disputes with Egypt over the
administration of the Halaib triangle, which is rich in
phosphate, manganese and possibly oil, led Sudan to ask the
Arab League to enter the conflict. Acc. an agreement of 1899
belongs to Halaib Egypt, but a new agreement of 1905 left
the area to Sudan.
In January 1998, the United States introduced an economic
blockade of Sudan. As a backdrop, the superpower stated that
Sudan "supports international terrorism", trains opposition
groups from neighboring countries to destabilize them and,
moreover, lacks respect for human rights.
A month later, the UN called on the international
community to provide Sudan $ 100 million in aid to rescue
the 4 million victims of war and drought.
The Sudanese guerrilla blamed for the February attack in
which Vice President Al Zubair Mohamed Saleh died when his
plane crashed in the area of Nasir, 700 km from Khartoum.
Acc. observers receive Christian rebels in the People's
Liberation Army from the United States through Uganda,
Ethiopia and Eritrea. The Catholic Church in Sudan decided
for the first time to participate in the peace talks between
the Sudanese government and the SPLA, which agreed to
A meningitis epidemic hit the country in March 1999. In
Khartoum alone, 30 people per day died. It was the worst
suburbs of the capital.