Overview of South America
The natural area of South America is characterized by the high mountains of
the Andes in the west, the mountainous countries of Brazil and Guiana in the
east and the wide lowlands of the great rivers Amazon, Orinoco and Paraná. The
continent's climate is tropical, with the exception of its southern parts. The
lowlands near the equator are therefore covered by impenetrable tropical
rainforests. In the Andes, the climate and vegetation vary greatly with
The high cultures of Native Americans, such as that of the Incas, were destroyed
during the colonization of the continent by Spanish and Portuguese
conquerors. After almost 200 years of state independence, most countries are
still underdeveloped developing countries or emerging countries. Many countries
have great social differences between rich and poor, which lead to ongoing
political instability and frequent conflicts.
South America is the southern part of the double continent America. It is
connected to North America by the land and island bridge of Central America. The
geographical border with Central America is the isthmus of Panama.
With an area of almost 18 million km², South America takes up about 12% of the
mainland of the world. It is more than 7,600 km from the northernmost point to
the southern tip of South America. The largest west-east extension is almost
The west coast of South America is not very structured. The estuaries of the
large streams cut deep into the east coast. In the south, the mainland mass
dissolves into thousands of islands (pictures 1 and 2).
The western part of South America is shaped by the Andes, which are the
continuation of the North American Cordilleras.
The approximately 8000 km long and up to 700 km wide young fold mountains
reach their highest height with the Aconcagua (6960 m).
It is structured by a large number of mountain ranges with deep longitudinal
valleys. The mountain ranges often include wavy highlands or plateaus, such as
the 200 km wide Altiplano of Bolivia.
The Andes rise out of the narrow coastal plains of the West like a wall.
On the other hand, parallel to the west coast of South America is an elongated
deep-sea trench, the Atacama trench, which is up to 8066 m deep.The height
differences in this room are up to 15000 m. They are the result of the
mountain-forming endogenous forces that have been active since the Tertiary.
A large number of active volcanoes and recurring earthquake disasters in the
Andean countries indicate that the earth's crust is still in motion.
In the east of South America, low mountains and table countries predominate.
The Brazilian Highlands has 5 million square kilometers area
half the size of Europe. Although it rises up to 3000 m, it largely has the
character of a low mountain range.
North of it, separated only by the Amazon, lies the much smaller mountainous
region of Guiana. Like the Patagonian plateau on the southern tip of the
continent, both mountain countries are fragments of the primary continent of
Gondwana (Fig. 4). Between the mountainous countries are extensive basin
landscapes that, like the lowlands of the Amazon, are traversed
by the great currents of South America.
The main streams of the continent are the Amazon, the Orinoco, the Paraguay
and the Paraná, all of which flow to the Atlantic. With their tributaries, they
enable large parts of South America to be connected by water.
The Amazon is the richest in water and, at around 6500 km after the Nile, the
second longest river in the world. In contrast, only short rivers flow into the
Pacific, since the Andes that form the watershed between the Atlantic and the
Pacific run through the continent far to the west.
South America's largest lakes, such as Lake Titicaca and Lake Poopo in
Bolivia, are located primarily on the Andean plateaus.
Large parts of South America are in the tropics (Fig.
6). The temperatures here are high all year round. In the Amazon lowland, annual
rainfall can reach up to 27 °C. That is why tropical rainforests dominate the
Precipitation decreases from the equator to the north and south. Savanna (wetland,
dry and thorny savannah), sparse dry forests and scrubland are therefore common
in the mountainous countries of Brazil and Guiana.
The subsequent subtropics include large parts of Argentina
and Uruguay with grass steppes (pampas) in the Argentinean lowlands and dry or
desert steppes in eastern Patagonia. The southern part of the continent extends
into the temperate latitudes, Tierra del Fuego even into the subpolar
This zonal structure of climate and vegetation is modified by the Andes:
The Andes act as a climate divide.
The narrow coastline of the west coast is therefore mainly influenced by the
Pacific. This brings extremely high rainfall to the north, with an annual
average of more than 5000 mm of rainfall on the Colombian coast. On the other
hand, a coastal desert, the Atacama, has formed on the coast of Chile in the
area affected by the cold Humboldt Current.
On the other hand, the climate in the Andes region is determined much more by
the altitude than by the latitude. The decrease in temperature with increasing
altitude has led to the formation of altitude levels in the climate (Fig. 7),
which in turn result in a vertical structure of the vegetation:
- "tierra caliente" (hot country),
- "tierra templada" (temperate country),
- " tierra fria ”(cool country),
-“ tierra helada ”(cold country).
Depending on the amount of precipitation, however, different types of vegetation
can develop in one level of the climate. In humid regions of the "tierra
helada" B. the Paramo vegetation with heather and laurel-like shrubs, in drier
the Puna vegetation with dry grasses and cacti.
With almost 400 million inhabitants, South America accounts for almost 6% of
the world's population.
The population is very unevenly distributed with an average
population density of 21 inhabitants/km².
Although there are large, sparsely or not at all populated areas, the attraction
of the metropolitan areas in South America and the ever increasing
urbanization is very great. As a result, there are now 29 million
cities in South America, 13 in Brazil alone. The major population
agglomerations, such as São Paulo in Brazil, Buenos Aires in Argentina or
Santiago in Chile, are mostly located on or near the sea.
From the original Native Americans, unmixed remnants only live in the Andean
highlands and the Amazon region.
The majority of today's South Americans are descendants of the Native Americans,
immigrant Europeans and Asians as well as the descendants of slaves abducted
The colonial period in South America also left its mark on the languages:
- Spanish is the official language in the majority of countries, Portuguese in
Brazil. Recently, the acceptance of Indian languages has increased again. For
example, the Indian languages Ketchua and Aimara are now permitted as
additional official languages in Peru and Bolivia. With religions
dominates the continent with a share of 90%. The ancient Indian religions are
only practiced among the isolated peoples in the Andes and Amazonia.
The standard of living has developed positively in most
countries in recent decades, particularly with regard to health care and
schooling. According to
Countryaah, the majority of the population still lives in poverty, e.g. T. at
the edge of the subsistence minimum. This is particularly true for the urban
population. The rural exodus has increased in recent years.
In the hope of better living conditions, people flock to the large metropolises
that are growing uncontrollably and whose centers are often surrounded by slums,
known as favelas in Brazil.
The root cause of social emergencies is the traditionally unequal ownership
structure. In almost all countries, the vast majority of the wealth is
concentrated in the hands of a vanishingly small upper class, which, despite
some democratization successes, continues to exercise political power.
The countries of South America are developing countries with the exception of
Argentina and Brazil. Together they are the most indebted region on earth.
Agriculture is the most important economic area in many countries in South
The states are large producers and exporters of agricultural raw materials and
foods such as coffee, grain, meat, wool or sugar cane. In addition, there are
important deposits of many valuable natural resources in the
countries of South America : iron and the steel refiners antimony, tungsten and
manganese, the aluminum raw material bauxite, copper, tin and lead, saltpetre as
raw material for the fertilizer production and the chemical industry, as well as
Many South American countries have developed from pure raw material producers
to emerging countries in the past decades.
Today, in the metropolitan areas of industry, e.g. B. in Brazil, Argentina or
Chile, produces a wide range of industrial products, but they are not very
competitive on the world market.
The main problem of the South American economy is the lack of qualified
specialists. Secondly, there is a lack of capital. Due to the often unstable
political conditions and weak currencies, there are only a few foreign investors
who invest in industry. In addition, there is the widespread high level of debt
in most countries. There is no continental traffic network in South America. The
natural conditions, such as the impassable virgin forests in the tropics or the
ridges of the Andean region, are very difficult for traffic access.
This was demonstrated, for example, by the Transamazonica project, the
construction of a 5,600 km long connecting road between the north Brazilian
Atlantic coast and the Peruvian border at the foot of the Andes, which started
in 1970 and has not yet been fully completed.
Otherwise, the transport network is only well developed in the industrial
regions. In addition to road and rail transport, coastal and river shipping also
plays an important role for the transport of people and goods. In the large
countries of Brazil and Argentina, the plane is also used as a common means of
Traces of settlement indicate that South America has been populated for at
least 50,000 years.
More than 2000 years ago, the development of various advanced cultures began
in the west of the continent, such as the Parasca culture in Peru (from around
800 BC) or the Moche culture in Bolivia (around 200 AD).
The Inca Empire was of outstanding importance from 1200. It covered almost the
entire Andean region in 1500 and extended into the tropical lowlands in the
east. It was the largest empire in ancient America.
After the discovery of the "New World" by Columbus in 1492,
the colonization of South America began (Fig. 11). Spaniards and Portuguese in
particular destroyed the high cultures within a few decades. The languages and
cultures of the colonial powers displaced or overlaid the old American
Due to the conquests and their consequences (e.g. introduced diseases) the
Indian population was severely decimated. That is why black slaves were abducted
South America was soon completely divided among the colonial powers:
- In 1534 a Viceroy was appointed for New Spain, which
included large parts of North America, Central America and Venezuela. Its
capital was Mexico City.
- The Viceroyalty of Peru was founded in 1543 (capital
Lima), which encompassed the entire Spanish domain.
- In 1549, the Portuguese began to set up an
administration in Brazil.
In the 18th century, two Spanish viceroys were added: New Granada, which
included the current states of Ecuador, Colombia, Panama and Venezuela, and Rio
de la Plata, which included the countries of Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay and
The collapse of the colonial system began in the wake of the
French Revolution. Uprisings, wars of liberation, but also negotiations created
most of today's states until the mid-19th century.
In 1948 the OAS (Organization of American States) was founded.
It helps to improve the relationship between the member states and the United
States. Since the end of the 19th century, this relationship has been heavily
impacted by interventions by the United States to gain or maintain its influence
in South America.
The dictatorships, which often ruled in many countries with the support of
the United States, have been overthrown or forced to make democratic concessions
since the 1970s. However, corruption, disregard for human rights, guerrilla
warfare, drug trafficking and the associated economic and social problems have
often prevented and still prevent genuine democratization.