The defense, which is based on general military duty with
an initial service of 12 months, comprises (2008) 8,600 men
and has 6 regiments, 13 armed helicopters, etc. The reserves
comprise a total of 137,000 men. Semi-military security and
border forces amount to 7,200 men. The material is outdated
and of Soviet origin.
Defense costs decreased in 1985-2006 from 9.0% to 0.8% of
GDP. To see related acronyms about this country, please check ABBREVIATIONFINDER where you can see that MNG stands for Mongolia. Mongolia participates in UN peacekeeping operations in
nine countries, including Iraq (MNF), Liberia (UNMIL) and
The name Mongol appeared for the first time in a
record of the various tribes made during the T'ang dynasty.
Then it disappeared again until the 11th century, when the
kidan people came to rule in Manchuria and northern China.
Thus, they had almost all of present-day Mongolia under
The Kidan people created the Chinese Liao Dynasty
(907-1125) and ruled Mongolia by keeping various tribes
divided. The historical sources speak of the existence of a
nation made up of all the Mongols, though it did not include
all the peoples who spoke this language.
Kidan was followed by the Juchen people, who were again
followed by the Tartars before the era of Genghis Khan's
(Temujin) era. He was born in 1162 in a clan with long
traditions of power as the grandson of Qabul (Kublai Khan),
who was the supreme ruler of the Mongols at the time. Due to
his political and military capabilities, Temujin was
appointed chief of all Mongols in 1206 with the title of
Genghis Khan. From this point, his armies invaded northern
China and reached Beijing. In 1215, the Mongol empire
extended to Tibet and Turkestan.
At the death of Genghis Khan in 1227, the Mongol empire
fell apart due to conflicts between his successors. The
process of dissolution continued until China's throne in
1368 came into the hands of the Ming dynasty. China invaded
Mongolia and set fire to the ancient capital, Karakorum, but
without being able to bring the territory under its control.
In order to establish control over the territories
outside the Great Great Wall in the 15th and 16th centuries,
military mobility was required among the nomads and
occupation of the cities that attracted trade as well as
supplies of food from the local peasants.
From the far western corner of Mongolia, the oyrat people
began to gain control of the country. They conquered some
oases in Sinkian and Tibet, where the Chinese central power
was weakest. At the same time, they brought trade and
administrative experience to the tribal organization of the
During the same period, the separation between the oyrat
and the jealous people took place. The latter group was
later driven in the formation of Outer Mongolia. The Khalkha
people in the north and the Sajaris in the south retained a
tribal league, while the succession passed to the ordo
people under the rule of Altan Khan (1543-83).
In order to preserve their power, the Mongol princes
recognized the advantage of exploiting a religious ideology,
but occupying the Chinese religion they ran the danger of
being engulfed by this empire. Therefore, they introduced
Tibetan Buddhism, which did not pose the same risk, and
whose written language was more accessible.
Altan Khan therefore invited a senior cleric from Tibet,
whom the Mongols called the Dalai Lama. The merging of
religious interests with the state was accomplished by
appointing an heir to the Jalja clan as the first
"reincarnation" of the Living Buddha in Urga.
After consolidating their power in Manchuria, in 1644 the
Manchurians conquered the Chinese throne in alliance with
Mongolian tribes from the Far East. Prior to conquering
Beijing, the Manchurians had control of southern Mongolia,
which has since been referred to as Inner Mongolia.