The defense was severely cut and reorganized following
the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Kyrgyzstan has been a
member of the CSTO, the Collective Security Treaty
Organization, since 1992, with Russian Federation.
The defense is based on general military duty and (2008)
comprises 11,000 men, of which the army has 8,500 men with 3
brigades and the air force 2,400 men with 52 older fighter
aircraft. The material is of Soviet origin and semi-modern.
Semi-military security forces amount to 9,500 men.
Defense spending decreased in 1996-2006 from 2.6% to 1.3%
of GDP. Kyrgyzstan participates in UN peacekeeping
operations with observers in Ethiopia/Eritrea, Liberia and
Sudan. Denmark, the Russian Federation and the United States
support air operations and/or air transport operations in
Afghanistan from Kyrgyzstan. To see related acronyms about this country, please check ABBREVIATIONFINDER where you can see that KYR stands for Kyrgyzstan.
2010 Revolution II
Kyrgyzstan was hit by the global economic crisis and, at
the end of 2009, faced increasing energy problems. Over the
winter, therefore, the country was hit by rolling power
cuts, and in February 2010, the authorities announced that
heat would rise by 400% and electricity prices by 170%. It
triggered general dissatisfaction and at the same time
increased dissatisfaction with the government due to its
corruption. In the spring, Russia's support for the
government also diminished after President Bakiev decided to
lease the Manas air base to the United States.
Russian-controlled media launched a campaign against the
president, accusing him of corruption.
On April 1, Russia imposed duties on its oil and gas
exports to Kyrgyzstan, and this immediately broke through in
prices. On April 6, therefore, about 1,000 protesters
attacked public buildings in western Kyrgyzstan. The
buildings were occupied but later recaptured by security
forces. On April 7, the demonstrations spread to the
capital, where police first used tear gas, rubber bullets
and pacifier grenades against the protesters, to later
switch to sharp ammunition. About 88 were killed and 1,000
injured in the ensuing fighting. Still, protesters first
managed to storm Parliament and later occupy the state TV
On April 15, Bakiyev went into exile in Kazakhstan and at
the same time filed his resignation as president. From
Kazakhstan, he flew to Belarus a few days later, where on
the 21st he declared that he still considered himself the
president of his country.
It was the ousted President Bakiyev who had secured the
United States the right to use the Manas air base that has a
strategic bearing on the war of superpower in Afghanistan.
The United States therefore criticized the protesters from
the beginning in April, and after the opposition took power,
the superpower declared that it continued to regard Bakiyev
as the country's president. Others, by UN Secretary-General
Ban Kee Moon, on the other hand, described Bakiyev's
departure as an important step towards democracy in the
The transitional government, led by Roza Otunbayeva,
declared after a few days that it would hold elections in
2011. Otunbayeva is barred by the constitution from running
for that election.
In mid-June, an ethnic conflict in southern Kyrgyzstan
broke out between Kyrgyz and Uzbek people. The conflict was
possibly triggered by supporters of deposed President
Bakiyev, costing several hundred killed, 2,000 wounded over
the course of several days, and sending 100-250,000 on the
run. 45,000 of them to neighboring Uzbekistan.
In May 2011, a commission of inquiry headed by President
Roza Otunbayeva issued a report on the June 2010 massacre.
As a result of the investigation, 5,000 charges were raised,
but although almost all victims were Uzbek, 83% of those
accused of killing were also Uzbek. Uzbek people were
routinely sentenced to a few years in prison for life. Often
on "confessions" forced during torture. The country's
Supreme Court upheld those judgments.