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Israel

Defense

Military of IsraelIsrael's defense is based on general military duty (for Jews and Druze) with an initial service of 36 months (women 24 months). Services for non-Mosaic professors are voluntary. To see related acronyms about this country, please check ABBREVIATIONFINDER where you can see that ISR stands for Israel. In total, the defense comprises 168,000 men with 408,000 men in reserve. Defense spending has occasionally been as high as 35% of GDP for a long period. During the period 1985-90, the proportion fell from 21 to 13% and (2005) amounts to 6.8%. Israel receives significant support for defense purposes, including USA, based on agreements from 1952 and 1984. The country has an advanced defense industry with a large export share. Officially, Israel does not dispose of nuclear weapons; However, several sources indicate that the country has about 200 warheads in the strategic forces. During the 1991 Kuwait War, Israel took a cautious stance despite Iraqi action of about 40 Scud missiles and allowed the grouping of foreign combat forces into its territory in the form of American and Dutch anti-aircraft missiles. Since 1996, Israel has an agreement with Turkey on flight training from bases in Turkey.

Military of Israel

The defense (2005) focuses on conflict management, defense against ground robots and non-conventional weapons ("suicide bombers"). The army with 125,000 men, 625,000 men fully staffed, is flexible and adapted to the current situation. The base consists of two mechanized divisions and four infantry divisions with eight divisions in reserve. 4,300 tanks and a large element of command units/brigades. The Navy with 5,500 men, 11,500 men fully staffed, disposes of three submarines and 54 fighters, and the Air Force has 35,000 men, 59,000 men fully manned, with 402 fighter aircraft and 95 attack helicopters. Semi-military units for border and coastal surveillance amount to 8,500 men.

The defense equipment is modern. To reduce costs and other sacrifices for defense purposes, a discussion on shortened military service time is ongoing, mainly for reservists, who usually serve one month a year.

Israel's defense overview

The Israeli defense force, Tsva ha-Haganah LeYisrael (Tzahal, or Zahal), is internationally known by the English name Israel Defense Forces (IDF). It consists of the military forces of the Israeli state, established on May 31, 1948, shortly after independence, and during the country's liberation war (Palestine War). The forces have fought several wars against foreign attackers, and have launched a number of military operations against targets abroad as well. The IDF is one of the most important Israeli community institutions, and has won international recognition for its innovation and efficiency - as well as criticism for alleged civilian abuse.

The IDF's main task is to defend the existence of Israel, its territory and its population, against external enemies, and together with other actors contribute to its security. The IDF, together with a border police, is also responsible for securing Israeli borders and contributing to the security of Jewish settlements in occupied areas.

Military strengths and materials

The total force numbers for Israel's armed forces are 169,500 active personnel, with a reserve of 465,000 personnel (2018, IISS). In addition there are about 8000 semi-military border police.

Army

The army has a workforce of 126,000 active personnel, including 100,000 conscripts. Heavier materials include 490 tanks of a Merkava, about 300 reconnaissance vehicles, and 1,300 armored personnel.

Air Force

The Air Force has a workforce of 34,000 active personnel. Material comprising 58 fighters of a F-15 Eagle, 264 combat aircraft (25 F-15I Ra'am, 225 F-16, including 98 F-16I Sufa, and 14 F-35I Adir), four ELINT aircraft, six reconnaissance aircraft, four AEW aircraft 11 tanker, 62 transport, 67 trainers, and 143 helicopters, of which 43 gunships central Apache). In addition, heavy, medium and light drones.

The Navy

The Navy has a workforce of 9500 active personnel, including 2,500 conscripts. The fleet includes five tactical submarines, three corvettes, 42 patrol vessels, two landings and three logistics and auxiliary vessels.

Israel - Jerusalem

Jerusalem History

The name Jerusalem is considered to be covered in Egyptian texts from the 19th century BC. (Egyptian 'ws'mm ). In the Akkadian so-called amarn letters from the 1300s BC it is written in Urusalim, and in Assyrian inscriptions from the 7th century BC Ursalimmu. In addition to Jerusalem, the city of the Old Testament also goes by the names Salem, Jebus, the City of David and Zion. The Greek form is Hierosolyma.

Jerusalem is located just over 50 km from the Mediterranean and 22 km from the Dead Sea at an altitude of 689-800 m. Three deep valleys: Here, Tyropoion and Kidron, cut through the limestone massif in a southerly direction. Between them are the two long mountain heights on which the city first spread. There are traces of people in the area since about 300,000 years ago. Judging from ceramic finds, however, the first urban building arose in the 3000s BC. on the southeastern elevation, adjacent to the Gihon fountain. The oldest documented defense facilities date from the 19th century BC. The city was not at one of Palestine's major thoroughfares, but thanks to its strategic location, it became a central city. In the Old Testament and in the history of Israel, Jerusalem occupies a unique position both politically and religiously;

Jebus, the city on the southeastern hill, was taken about 1000 BC. of David (2 Samuel 5: 6), who then purchased a "threshing-floor" of the Jebusite Arauna to build an altar (2 Samuel 24:18). This is probably meant by the so-called Temple Mount, where Solomon had his grand temple erected (First Kings 7). After Solomon's death, the kingdom was divided, and Jerusalem became the capital of the southern kingdom of Judah. During the United Kingdom and subsequent periods, Jerusalem was also expanded on the western elevation, but always in a northerly direction. In this way, the valleys were utilized as natural moat, while recesses in the mountain ranges were utilized and extended in defense of the north side.

During Israelite times, Jerusalem was taken only twice; by Pharaoh Sheshonk  I (Bible Sisak) circa 925 BC and by Nebuchadnezzar 587 or 586 BC At a later date, most of the city's residents were abducted to Babylon. The Persian Great King Cyrus Edict 536 BC gave the Jews permission to return and build up Jerusalem. A new shrine, the so-called Temple of Zerubbabel, was inaugurated 515 BC, and under the governor Nehemiah and the scribe Ezra, the political and religious status of the city was largely restored. After the death of Alexander the Great 323 BC Jerusalem was incorporated into the Ptolemaic Empire while maintaining some independence of the population; however, the city was occupied by Seleucid troops in 198 BC. The Hellenization process then culminated in King Antioch IV Epiphanes and the High Priest Jason had a high school in the city, which in practice made Jerusalem a Hellenistic police. When Antiochus 167 BC defiled the temple by treading its most holy place, looting its treasures and sacrificing the shrine to Zeus (the so-called "abomination of desolation") broke out revolt. Under the leadership of Judas Mackabaios, the Seleucids were driven out of Jerusalem. The temple was purified in 164 BC; In commemoration of that event, the feast of Chanukka is celebrated.

From 141 BC Jerusalem was controlled by the Hasmonean dynasty. Intradynastic factional battles led 63 BC to Roman intervention: the Roman warlord Pompey entered Jerusalem and demolished the city walls, which, however, were rebuilt 47 BC. Ten years later, Jerusalem was again taken by Roman forces in support of the idolatic prince Herod. During the reign of King Herod (37–4 BC), the city was decorated with a large temple and a palace. The idyllic king Agrippa, who reigned 34–44 AD, is attributed to the last phase of development to the north, the so-called third wall.

Jerusalem also remained under Roman rule the most important Jewish central city until the year 70 AD, when a nationwide rebellion led to Roman legions under Titus taking Jerusalem and burning the temple. The city was more or less in ruins until Emperor Hadrian in 130 made it a Roman colony under the name Aelia Capitolina. After Bar Kokhba's rebellion 132–135, all circumcised access to the city was banned, and a Jupiter temple was erected on the Temple Mount.

Jerusalem was given a new boost since the Roman Christian's large Christian population through the tolerance poem in Milan 313 received official sanction for its religious practice. At the church meeting in Nicaea 325, Jerusalem received the rank as the fourth most important place of Christianity, and at the church meeting in Chalcedon 451, Jerusalem gained the status of independent patriarchate. The city received a strong Christian touch. During the years 614–628, the Persians ruled over Jerusalem. the churches were destroyed. After a short time belonging to the Byzantine Empire, Jerusalem 638 was conquered by the caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab. From the 8th century, Jerusalem's significance increased, and the city gained its position as Islam's third holiest place. Christians and Jews were allowed to practice their religion under Islam but over time became a minority as many joined the new teaching. The conquest of the Seljuks by Jerusalem in 1071 meant a radical deterioration for the Christians, thus paving the way for the crusades. Crusaders conquered Jerusalem in 1099 and established a kingdom called Jerusalem (see separatearticle ). Jerusalem again came under Muslim rule from 1291, first during the Mamluks and from 1517 as part of the Ottoman Empire. Inside the walls of Jerusalem, the residents of the city lived until the middle of the 19th century, largely by religious affiliation in their own neighborhoods (Armenian, other Christian, Jewish, Muslim).

In 1917, Jerusalem was taken by the British under Lord Allenby and became part of the British mandate Palestine. Jerusalem was severely affected by the conflict between Jews, Britons and Arabs. The 1947 UN plan for Palestine's division meant that Jerusalem and its surrounding areas would be placed under international control. Instead, the Arab attacks on the new state of Israel in May 1948 led to the division of Jerusalem. The western, new part was taken by Israel, the eastern, old part of Transjordan, and no man's land arose between them. In 1949, Israel proclaimed its part of Jerusalem as the country's capital in response to a renewed attempt by the UN to internationalize the city. Jerusalem remained divided until the Six Day War in 1967, when Israel conquered and annexed old Jerusalem, which until then had been closed to Israelis. In 1980, the Israeli parliament declared Jerusalem the eternal and indivisible capital of Israel. The Israeli measures have not been recognized internationally, and they have been urged by Muslim states to call for holy war (jihad ) against Israel. Since Jerusalem is sacred to three religions, the question of the status of Jerusalem is extremely complicated and sensitive. An extensive Jewish settlement has taken place in Jerusalem since 1987 with suburbs, among others. after confiscation of Arab property. Israel considers itself historically entitled to all of Jerusalem as the holiest place of Judaism. The Palestinians see East Jerusalem as the capital of the state, Palestine, which they proclaimed in the fall of 1988. Negotiations on the final position of Jerusalem, according to the 1993 Declaration of Principles between Israel and the PLO, would begin in May 1996. Some real progress in this, central to both parties, has been however, not yet done.

However, in 2000, Israeli Prime Minister Barak was prepared to hand over parts of Jerusalem inhabited by Arabs to the Palestinian Authority in a final peace deal. But Israeli leaders since early 2009, Netanyahu, are still opposed to once again dividing the city.

In 2017, US President Donald Trump decided to follow a 1995 congressional decision to recognize Jerusalem as Israel's capital and to move the US embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem. The United States thus became the first state to have its embassy in Jerusalem. The move to a temporary embassy in Jerusalem was completed in May 2018.

 

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