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Denmark

Defense

Military of DenmarkThe defense is based on NATO membership. Denmark's territory is part of NATO's Northeast sector including the Baltic Sea. To see related acronyms about this country, please check ABBREVIATIONFINDER where you can see that DMK stands for Denmark. The defense is increasingly based on voluntary service with a selective military duty of ten months' first service (changed to four months) and (2005) comprises 21,000 men, of which 5,700 are conscripted. It is organized into an army of 12,500 men, 58,500 men fully staffed, with a division of three mechanized brigades as well as an independent brigade with high readiness. The Navy comprises 3,300 men, 11,000 men fully manned, with three frigates, 67 patrol boats, six miners, etc. The aircraft comprises 4,000 men, 5,800 men fully manned, with 62 F-16 fighter aircraft, which will be partially replaced by a new generation aircraft. The equipment is modern and of a normal NATO standard. The reserves amount to a total of 70,000 people.

Denmark is part of NATO on so-called minimum terms. Since 1953, under normal peace conditions there has been a base ban on foreign forces and since 1957 a reservation prohibiting the placement of nuclear weapons during peacetime. Denmark's defense capabilities are complicated by the military geographic conditions. In 1962, therefore, in direct cooperation with what was then West Germany, a jointly integrated NATO command, BALTAP (Allied Command Baltic Approaches) was organized. NATO's leadership organization has changed significantly after the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. Nowadays, there is the operational command center for NATO's Northeast sector and a leadership team for a UN emergency brigade in Denmark. Defense costs (2005) amount to 0.8% of GDP. Denmark participates in a number of international efforts, including in Serbia and Montenegro (Kosovo) with 370 men and in Iraq with 470 men.

Military of Denmark

The politics of the 1950's and 60's

The political development of the mid-1950's was characterized by social-democratic stabilization in the working class, stagnation of the bourgeois parties and decline of DKP in elections. The post-war new economic policy and class cooperation at both the political and professional levels did not encounter greater opposition from the working class until the 1956 strike. But at the same time, the breadth and power of the strike showed that long-term dissatisfaction was the root cause. However, the strike became - among other things. due to the DKP's subversive and parliamentary line - not used for a labor offensive.

For DKP, Khrushchev's revelations at the SUKP's 20th Party Congress in 1956 and the invasion of Hungary in the fall of the same year led to the party losing further support among voters and the trade union movement, while causing unrest inside. Gradually the party chairman Aksel Larsen - who for more than 25 years had faithfully followed the directives of the Comintern and Kominform - emerged as leader of the opposition in the party. He formulated in various areas, including in the view of the Soviet Union, party democracy and disarmament, a policy that was contrary to the majority of the Central Committee stated by Ib Nørlund. After DKP's 20th congress in 1958, Larsen was excluded and a large number of party members, professional and political confidants resigned from the party. Shortly afterwards Larsen was elected chairman of the new party, the Socialist People's Party (SF).

At the 1960 parliamentary elections, SF gained 11 seats after conducting election campaigns on disarmament issues and a more active socialist policy. DKP, on the other hand, had to leave the Parliament. The Social Democracy also progressed, and until 1964 the party retained government power in coalition with the Radical Left, and in the period 1964-66 as a minority government under Jens Otto Krag. During the boom in the 1960's and early 1970's, the government was given greater opportunities to implement reforms. Especially in education, health and social policy there was a sharp expansion. Furthermore, the quality of the new building was improved, the number of apartments increased and the city redevelopment started. But the conditions for social housing became more difficult at the same time, creating the basis for privatization and costly housing.

The reforms supported in part by SF and the radicals meant a huge expansion of the public sector. This was possible due to the boom which created the possibility of increased taxation. However, inflation continued to accelerate, while most of the balance of payments deficit was in most years. This was attempted to be regulated through fiscal and monetary policy, which in turn led to higher discount rates, fluctuations and cost increases in the construction sector. The liberalization in the 1960's within the EFTA trade cooperation (which Denmark had helped to establish in 1959) made import regulations more difficult. It was against this background that the idea of ​​saving spending through income policy began to emerge. In the spring of 1963, the Ministry of Krag implemented the so-called comprehensive solution,agreements for a two-year period with minor pay increases, introduced price hikes, etc. Thoughts on income policy reappeared periodically, but were not brought to fruition until the crisis of the 1970's.

Copenhagen

Traffic

Copenhagen is served by access roads and ring roads. The old roads from Northeast Zealand's market towns, Vester-, Nørre- and Østerbrogade, are still main thoroughfares, where a significant part of the traffic to and from the city center takes place. The newer motorways from the catchment area have not been led through to the city center, but have been extended into four- or six-lane streets such as Lyngbyvej, HC Andersens Boulevard and Kalvebod Brygge.

The busiest places such as Langebro from Amager and Lyngbyvej by Emdrup are passed by 50,000-60,000 vehicles per. Day.

The city's S-train network, whose oldest parts are from 1934, included 85 stations in 2006. The busiest hub is Nørreport Station with 53,000 departing passengers on weekdays (2004). Copenhagen Central Station is a hub for long-distance traffic to Denmark and abroad, while DSB's freight terminal is located in Høje Taastrup.

The fixed Øresund connection from Kastrup to Lernacken near Malmö with motorway and railway was inaugurated in 2000. In connection with this, a railway was built from Copenhagen Airport to Central Station. In addition, metro lines have been built from Vanløse via Frederiksberg and Nørreport to Vestamager and Østamager, comprising 17 stations in 2006.

The city's traffic problems are mainly related to the daily commute. It's about. 105,000 jobs in inner Copenhagen, and a large part of the employees live in the suburban and surrounding municipalities. Many people use private cars to and from these workplaces, partly because the sprawling detached house neighborhoods in the suburbs are difficult to operate efficiently with public transport, and partly because private car traffic is relatively cheap.

The Port of Copenhagen mainly serves Zealand and, together with the ports of Esbjerg and Århus, is the country's largest in terms of general cargo.

Copenhagen Airport in Kastrup is a hub for the country's network of domestic routes and serves about 90% of international traffic; it is also a distribution point for traffic between Scandinavia and the continent.

The city's social division

Copenhagen's division into residential areas with different social and economic profiles has deep roots. Already during the expansion of the bridge quarters, Østerbro was built with larger apartments of higher quality and with higher rents than Nørrebro and Vesterbro.

Østerbro was populated by the more affluent middle class, while the other bridge districts became home to the working class.

The relocation from Copenhagen to the suburban municipalities has later repeated this geographical separation of the social strata, as the affluent are often sought for the north (critically jokingly called the whiskey belt) and the less affluent to the west.

In the same process, the low-standard housing of the bridge districts has become home to the most economically disadvantaged. The average income in the Capital Region's richest municipality, Rudersdal Municipality, is thus approx. twice the level at Nørrebro.

After urban renewal and redevelopment in the 1980's and 1990's, Vesterbro and parts of Nørrebro have become attractive to younger single people, who inhabit many of the small apartments in the area, often bought for them by their parents.

Greater Copenhagen is inhabited by 116,000 foreign nationals, corresponding to 8% (2006) and concentrated in the bridge districts. In Vesterbro and Nørrebro, they make up 15% of the residents.

Correspondingly high proportions are found in some suburbs with very non-profit rental buildings such as Ishøj and Brøndby. In Hørsholm and Søllerød, foreigners make up only 5-6%, and their background and status here is quite different.

 

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