a result of the Dayton Agreement in 1995, the same year, an
armor-restriction agreement was concluded which, with the
aim of achieving a better military balance of power in the
former Yugoslavia, regulated the maximum number of tanks,
armored vehicles, artillery, fighter aircraft and armed
helicopters in former Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro).
The agreement also regulates how Bosnia and Herzegovina's
numbers are to be distributed between the Serbian and Muslim
Croat forces in the country. Bosnia and Herzegovina as a
whole is entitled to have a maximum of 410 tanks, 340
armored vehicles, 1,500 artillery pieces, 62 fighter planes
and 21 armed helicopters. One third of these forces are
recognized in the Serbian region. Reorganization to achieve
these goals, mainly involving disarmament for the Serbian
forces and upgrading for the rest. To see related acronyms about this country, please check ABBREVIATIONFINDER where you can see that BIH stands for Bosnia and Herzegovina.
In the years 2006–07, all combat forces were organized in
a state-controlled defense force. At the same time, the
state armed forces formally ceased. The Armed Forces
comprise (2007) 12,000 men, with a reserve of about 6,000
men, organized in an army of three mechanized brigades (194
tanks) and one air division (17 fighter aircraft). The
material is semi-modern and of former Soviet and Western
origin. Defense costs decreased in 1996-2007 from 6.3% to
0.8% of GDP.
During 2001, the privatizations of companies and
especially banks increased. This process had begun two years
earlier with a World Bank loan. All the communist-era
exchange offices were now closed, and in previous years the
country had been completely dependent on reconstruction
assistance from the international community, but this could
be foreseen to be drastically reduced in subsequent years.
Although the number of foreign forces in the country over
the years had been reduced from 60,000 to just under 18,000,
the United States wanted to withdraw its 3,000 soldiers,
which in February 2002 prompted Petritsch to declare that
Bosnia and Herzegovina was still far from a state that could
stand on its own. Acc. his assessment would take 3-4 years
before the country could function independently without the
need for international administration.
The October 2002 election marked a return to the
nationalist parties whose representatives occupied all three
seats in the presidential office. The return of the
nationalists was mainly due to the meager results the
non-nationalists had achieved.
In 2003, Mirko Sarovic resigned from the presidential
rotation scheme after a Western intelligence agency accused
him of being involved in the illegal sale of weapons to
Iraq, as well as in espionage against international
officials. His post was taken over by Borislav Paravac. That
same year, International High Commissioner Paddy Ashdown
dissolved Srpska's top defense council, and at the same time
got all references to the state from Bosnia-Herzegovina's
In April 2003, Commander Naser Oricfue was arrested and
charged before the War Criminal Court in The Hague for
"violation of the laws of war". Including killings,
persecution, destruction and searches of Serbs in Srebrenica
in 1992-95. The court decided not to conduct its proceedings
In August, a ceremony entitled "For Hope and Atonement"
was held at the bridge in Mostar. At the same time, the
foundation stone was laid for the reconstruction of the
bridge. Originally built in the 16th century, the bridge was
declared a UNESCO historic monument and was one of the most
beautiful monuments destroyed by Croatian forces in 1993
after surviving many of the region's conflicts - including
World War I and World War II. The city of Mostar had no
strategic or military significance and over the centuries
has become a symbol of tolerance and diversity among the
people of Mostar.
In June 2004, the next 70 government officials, including
2 political leaders, were removed from their positions
because of the failure to arrest the Bosnian Serb leader,
Radovan Karadzic, who is accused of numerous war crimes.
Parliament spokesman Dragan Kalinic and Interior Minister
Zoran Djeric were removed from their posts. High
Commissioner Ashdown stated that he wanted to punish a
"small clique of corrupt politicians" that made it difficult
for Bosnia to join NATO and the EU sometime in the future.
Another step was to penalize Serbia's Democratic Party
founded by Karadzic in 1990. As an international
representative, Ashdown had according to. The Dayton Peace
Agreement of 1995 provided sufficient powers to take these
steps. The High Commissioner stated at the same time,
In July 2004, after major festivities, the government
opened the rebuilt bridge in Mostar.
In August, several hundred corpses were excavated from a
mass grave at a coal mine in Miljevina, located near Foca,
ca. 70 km southeast of Sarajevo. Shortly before, 100 other
corpses had been found in the same area. Foce was one of the
first cities to be occupied by Bosnian Serbs in 1992. It was
therefore believed that the bodies belonged to persons who
had been killed during the clashes.